Sustancias del Tabaco

martes, 2 de febrero de 2010

Dejar de fumar es un paso muy importante que tienen que tomar los fumadores. Cuanto mas informado estemos sobre todas las desventajas de fumar, menor será el esfuerzo que tengamos que hacer, pues "nuestra fuerza de voluntad se pondrá de nuestro lado". Comencemos viendo entonces las sustancias que componen al tabaco, fuente de nuestro problema.

Hasta el momento se conoce que el tabaco contiene mas de 4000 sustancias activas. De esa cantidad, 43 son cancerígenas, un dato que no es menor. Pero esto no termina allí, pues el resto no deben ignorarse, ya que son tóxicas, venenosas o elementos que de algún modo, terminan dañando los genes.

En la figura de abajo podemos ver algunas de las sustancias más significativas que contiene el tabaco:

dejar de fumar
Cada sustancia tiene un efecto diferente en el organismo del fumador. Por ejemplo, el Acetaldehido produce una irritación de la vías respiratorias, mientras que el cloruro de vinilo disminuye la líbido sexual (algo que nadie desea).

Las dos sustancias mas "conocidas" del tabaco, son la nicotina y el alquitrán. Y tiene una explicación que sean las más habladas. La nicotina es la encargada de crear la adicción y la que nos genera los problemas a la hora de dejar de fumar. Es en si un insecticida. Por suerte las cantidades absorbidas durante el ritual de fumar no son tan elevadas. Para que tengan una idea, sin inyectáramos la cantidad de nicotina que contiene un cigarrillo, por vía intravenosa, sería una dosis fatál. El alquitrán, por su parte, contiene numerosos carcinógenos, y muchos elementos que producen irritación.

Otro dato muy importante y curioso, es que entre tantas sustancias, se encuentran un par que son radiactivas. Los isótopos Plomo-210 y Polonio-210 generan radiaciones alfa, que afectan principalmente a los bronquios. Una persona que fuma 30 cigarros diaros (algo muy común) recibe debido a estas radiaciones el equivalente a 300 radiografías de torax por año.

Como dije al principio, verás que a medida que más aprendas sobre el cigarrillo, más ganas tendrás de dejar de fumar.

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